1.1. Background and History of Counseling and Counseling in Schooling and Other Circumstances
History of school counselors began at the beginning of the twentieth century, though the foundations of ancient guidance and guidance in Greece and Rome can be explored by Plato and Aristotle's philosophical teachings. It is also an indication that some of the methods and talents of counseling today that were practiced today were practiced by Catholic methods in the Middle Ages, as can be seen from the dedication of the confidential concept. At the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts on career choice appeared: The Universal Plaza of All World Occupations, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni, cited Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000). Nevertheless, formal instructions using specialized textbooks did not begin until the twentieth century.
Counseling is a term that has been in Tanzania for a long time. We have purchased for centuries to understand ourselves, offer advice, and develop our potential, become aware of opportunities, and generally help us in a way that is related to formal guidance. In most societies, there has been, and still is, a deeply built conviction that in the right conditions, people can help others with their problems. Some help others find ways to deal with, solve, or transfer problems such as Nwoye, (2009) laid down in his publications. In schools, now if the cooperation of teachers and students is good, students learn in a practical way. Young people develop freedom in their lives when they become aware of options and make use of them. At best, help should enable people to effectively turn off chains and manage their living conditions. Over the years, numerous economic and social changes have changed the ways in which we govern our lives. Consequently, not all lessons of the past can effectively respond to modern-day challenges. Successful counseling, especially in the schools, has now become important. Boys and girls, as well as young men and women, are guided by health and environmental issues, learning abilities, knowledge and attitudes that lead to success and failure in life. The need for counseling has become important in promoting child welfare. Effective guidance and counseling should help improve people's self-esteem and facilitate success in life's work. Advice should allow girls and boys to participate fully and benefit from the economic and social development of the nation.
2.0. Definitions of terms
Instructions are to show some people, like teenagers, who can't find the right way. It's pointing, pointing, leading, and observing. Instructions are to say "Yes" to someone who is asking for help. That is, "Yes" to someone's invitation to a temporary partner after their lifetime.
Instructions give guidance to lonely, confused, unloved, suffering, weak, and lost. It indicates that you can think, feel, and work. It is to lead the man psychologically, emotionally, and even spiritually to some new ways of meaningful life. It follows those who are frightened and uncertain, those who need someone along the terrible path of life's journey.
From the point of view, counseling is part of the advisory section. It is called directives. The high school and even university students need guidance when they are not sure what decisions to make or what guidelines to take. Advisory consultants "open" home to these individuals to choose from. It's like introducing the universe when everything you see is lonely. Advisory counselors expand and broaden the horizons of people who see only a narrow path or perspective of that path. Thus, the emphasis is on possibilities and choices.
Usually, counseling is in schools. The high school and university students make use of counseling and counseling at the school. More often, young men are uncertain about what to do, how to respond or respond, and how to respond to certain options. When this happens, they need someone older, wiser, and more experienced to show them the way to guide them. This is the role of a mentor to increase assistance when necessary to those who are confused, uncertain, and in need of advice. However, some adults may need guidance.
Advice is Leading and More. There is a way to heal wounds. It is both science and art. It is science because of counseling, counseling, or assistance, a consultant must have knowledge of the principles and methods of counseling. The counselor must be able to use any of these basic principles and methods as ideas for his good work. However, knowing these basic principles and methods is not enough. Another important factor is that the counselor is knowing how to advise – the consulting list. This episode deals with counseling as a relationship, as a living condition, in the hope that the person who will hurt will be healed. As a communication, counseling involves a physical, emotional, and psychological dimension. The counselor must have the ability to refer counselors appropriately physically without being too close or too close to being comforted or too distant or distant. Emotional dimension of counseling involves compassion, sensitivity, and ability to interpret the consultant's indescribable evidence to understand unresolved complex or mature emotions. A psychological or spiritual dimension covers the counselor "soul content" — what lies inside. This is what is called the interior of man. The counselor must have the gift or grace to gain insight into the inner world of the individual, especially his spiritual state, for this is very important in healing man's pain.
2.3. Other Definitions of the Terms
Biswalo (1996) defines guidelines as a term used to describe the process of helping a person gain self-understanding and self-determination (self-determination) so that he can change his or her home, school, or community environment. However, this process depends on advice. He also defines counseling as a method to help a person accept and use information and advice so that he can either solve his or her problem or deal with it. He rather considers that sometimes the process makes it easier for the individual to accept the unchangeable state, for example, the loss of dear loved ones and to some extent change it in favor but not allow him to overcome the situation. Guez and Allen (2000) noticed that one definition of advice is difficult to think of. This is because consulting definitions depend on theoretical orientation. Counseling is a learning-oriented process, usually in interactive communication, with the aim of helping a person learn more about himself and using such understanding to enable a person to become a successful member. Counseling is a method by which the assistant indicates caring and caring for those who have problems and facilitates personal growth and co-operation with self-knowledge. Advice is a relationship between the individuals and individuals concerned. This relationship is usually personal, although sometimes it may involve more than two individuals. It is designed to help people understand and clarify their views and learn how to achieve their self-defined goals through meaningful, informed choices, and through the resolution of emotional or human problems. It can be seen from these definitions that counseling can have different meanings.
3.0. The Origin of Guidance and Counseling in the Pre-Trial History
Counseling in Tanzania in different forms and with different interpretations has consulted communities for a long time for colonial times. Today's differences and contradictions originate from social and historical forces that have shaped modern culture. In Tanzania, people in all communities and at all times have experienced emotional or psychological distress and behavioral problems. In each culture there have been well-known ways and means to assist individuals with their problems. However, there is insufficient written authority on the origin of guidance and advice in Tanzania. But like other places before the colonial era, it was a unique unique aspect that kept communities together in life. The episodes include a widespread family system, including clan and tribe, ruler, taboo, various beginnings and close ties with ancestors and elders.
The village is the focus of society. While these factors are important, only a few are used to describe the role of guidance and counseling in modern Tanzanian societies. Basically, traditional chiefs had a variety of roles, including serving as a symbol of authority and regulators. Since these roles were accepted and respected by all, it was a clear way of everyday life in society. The elders, the chief chief, were a precious source of guidance and counsel for boys and girls. In most cases, chiefs were considered to be an important link between ancient and future generations. This link was funded by rituals, dedications, and bishops who followed them. It was easy to guide and advise young people, as the liturgy or activities also aimed at preparing for adult roles in society. Extended family, clan and village made community support. No one saw him as foreigners. Advice was read and provided. Ways of guidance and counseling, counsel, and wisdom were provided.
4.0. Development of guidance and counseling in Tanzanian schools
4.1. Guidance on Counseling and Counseling in Tanzanian School Levels
We have to explore what this is, as we think about the concepts of schooling. We should think about learning counseling. One might think that the definitions above on the concept of guidance and counseling, their meaning can be directed to an educational basis and now give meaning correctly. Guez and Allen (2000) pointed out that the concept of study counseling was first taken by Truman Kelley in 1914 in Makinde, (1988). Education counseling is a process of providing services to students who need assistance in deciding on important issues in their education, such as selection of courses and learning, decisions on interests and competences, and choice of school and high school. Student counseling increases the student's knowledge of education.
The incidence in Tanzania's society, along with social problems, such as HIV / AIDS and the rapid development of science and technology, place high demands on education. The school, as an important social institution, had to adapt to the changing pattern and help prepare citizens for tomorrow's challenges. This is where guidance and guidance in the education system should help boys and girls to develop their talents fully. This includes intellectual, social, physical and moral capabilities. This help is most important in Tanzania as long as the history and age of education provisions and in their systems found today.
Guidance on counseling and counseling in Tanzanian schools can be traced back to when the right of volunteering came to an end in colonial times. In the process of establishing advisory services in Tanzania, the underlying factors influencing people's views and perceptions of such approaches first had to be understood. However, this is thought that was not considered at that time and it may be up to the last time. It is especially important to understand the economic, social, religious, attitudes and traditions and cultural changes that exist in different areas of the country. Young people should understand in this context, but also in the unexpected circumstances that have to deal with the traditional and modern world, but this is a big challenge in Tanzania and many developing countries in Africa. During the colonial period, some kind of volunteer work was under the guidance of the supervisor. But educated masters selected by the principal had no voluntary training. Indeed, the obligation was limited to assisting students in completing assignments and writing letters of application. In mission places, career counseling was confined to religious service. Teachers who were usually father, priests, or guidance with guidance and training encourage young people to become sisters, brothers, fathers, and priests as they complete formal education.
Regardless of what could be done in schools in Tanzania, counseling and counseling was more or less a private company. Parents and relatives advised their children in all areas of life management and problems. It is true that in many families general counseling should be the traditional duty of older family members, father, mother, uncle, aunt and grandparents. If serious personal or family problems occurred, counseling was made by a particular community organization capable of dealing with this particular problem. This is done without any knowledge being acquired from a formal or informal school system but through experience and age wise by collecting wisdom. This kind of early counseling from school and community helped young people to enter the bright picture of living in the future for society.
4.2. Guidance on Counseling and Counseling in Tanzanian Schools in Post-Colonial Times
In some literature and literature, education and counseling in Tanzania and some other African countries are considered the youngest discipline. This is demonstrated by the first International Conference on Guidance, Counseling and Youth Development in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya, from April 22 to April 26, 2002, and pointed out that the Guidance, Counseling and Youth Program was launched in Africa in April 1994. , following the First Pan African Conference on the Education of Girls held in Ouagadougou in 1993. It is intended to promote or support the guidance and counseling in Africa. It focuses on building capabilities in the countries and provides training on both regional and national level on school guidance and counseling.
What we can call professional counseling and counseling in Tanzanian schools begins in 1984 after the Arusha conference in October 1984, where consulting and consulting services were approved by the government as well as the integral education system of the country (Biswalo, 1996). The aim of the conference is to establish a systematic framework for high school students & # 39; instructions and advice. Students were then advised, advised and advised on issues relating to their choice of work and study education for further education. This work was assigned to qualified masters and housewives as described below, but there were not enough mentors and counselors not only in the Ministry of Responsibility but also in the schools.
Counseling and counseling is now about to be established and distributed in educational institutions. Schools, for example, will be largely taken over by the task of providing psychological support to boys and girls. However, Biswalo (1996) points out that policies in Tanzania related to guidance and counseling are still lacking. The Ministry of Education has, however, somehow tried to establish a service within the educational system by appointing a supervisor and aunt. He continued to say that employees are responsible for advising the heads of upper secondary schools on education and learning at upper secondary schools; trying to help students understand and develop interest in appropriate jobs or further education or training; To evaluate students' abilities and abilities and encourage them to study or graduate programs that best suit them and help students solve personal problems that can affect overall school progress.
This is an impossible and realistic burden on these untrained staff. It reflects the withdrawal of policies and decisions on a new field of school guidance and counseling; the strength of myths about the proposed manpower, where career counseling is mistakenly considered unnecessary and roughly lacking in skilled workers who would provide effective advice and counseling in schools. It is unfortunate that even after the Arusha conference in October 1984 on the strengthening of education in Tanzania, where the Advisory and Advisory Service was approved by the government and an integral part of the education system in the country, the services so far are still patch and ineffective in the institutions of Tanzania. Guidelines and advice in this way are discussed in different schools in compulsory schools, upper secondary schools and tertiary education.
5.0. Guidance and Counseling in Compulsory and Upper Secondary Schools
At the primary school level in Tanzania, there were actually no specified students & # 39; teacher counselor. However, the activity left to the teachers themselves is to decide what needs to be done where there is no scheduled or temporary activity related to the guidance and advice. Teachers are still using a portion of teaching to practice guidance and counseling inside and outside the classroom, although not all teachers have attended teacher training. When children enter school, they need to be independent in the school itself, its environment, school community and curriculum to encourage and develop a positive attitude towards learning and schooling (Biswalo, 1996). As the students get older and go through different levels, they need to focus on learning abilities, learning disabilities and other school problems. But these activities are not systematically implemented in primary schools in Tanzania.
In the case of upper secondary schools, there is also an inadequate program or a temporary system of consultants and consultants. In some cases, this duty is the favorites and sometimes for teachers and principals. At the upper secondary level, students would seek study programs, information of all kinds and other educational aids. These needs are provided with guidance and advice (ibid). At this stage, students are assisted in the selection of studies, learning methods and exams and examinations. Biswalo (1996) pointed out that sometimes in the selection of material, it is proud to place as many students as possible in prestigious streams, such as science, priority over real abilities, interests and competencies of students. He said this unfortunate condition was born because of a lack of actual guidance and counseling in high schools.
The school has an important role to play in preparing students for continuing upper secondary education, paid employment, self-employment and life in society, as the Ministry of Education has stated in the goals of the compulsory school. There will be a special agreement among puppies, teachers and parents on the relative emphasis of certain schools put forward in preparation for further education, focusing on academic knowledge and seeking success in national examinations. It is that high schools where counseling is not well placed place little emphasis on citizenship and the development of a responsible attitude to life in the local, regional or national community and job opportunities. However, emphasis is placed on an informal industry, including self-employment, but emphasis is placed on employment in the formal sector by emphasizing the white collar.
5.1. Career, Career, and Counseling
In Tanzania, teachers are able to directly influence their students and & # 39; choice of jobs. The results and attitudes of students have been related to the symptoms and results of their teachers (World Bank, 1995, cited in Nyutu, PN & Norman, CG 2008). The influence of the school, however, is dependent on formal communication and communication that takes place between teachers and students in the classroom, but television and radio stations have informal communication that students have with these media. The effects of parents and siblings are both formal and informal.
It is in most cases in Tanzania and there may be other states where guidance and counseling are rarely done in schools; Parents play a major role in influencing their children's choice of career. Others who have a lower career, ie teachers, service managers, drivers, personal secretaries, soldiers, etc. Don't expect kids to walk in their footsteps and # 39; because for the children who are capable of learning at a higher level, we sometimes see these jobs as narrow and lacking in interest. However, it is suggested that & # 39; Employment can affect the choice of their children for career, but this has happened to children who have general abilities useful in such jobs and few may have internships related to those jobs. Access to information through the media and other forms of technology is to give young aspirations, which for the most part cannot be satisfied in their own environment. Choices need to be made and young people must acquire skills to assess situations and make informed decisions. It is no longer natural, understandable from birth to adulthood for Tanzanian youth.
Occupational counseling at the upper secondary level is provided, but very few are due, among other things, to a lack of schools or internally trained consultants. For those successful schools with such consultants, students are assisted, but free counseling is not emphasized because most students, teachers, and parents of course push students to do long-term plans to prepare well for proposed professionals. These counselors plan with the school administrators and teachers to provide appropriate courses for students with special skills or disabilities for student assessment.
University students have instructions and other guidelines and advice. In Tanzania, at least the university level has met the need to have qualified students & # 39; counseling for both psychological and academic aspects, though poor. Consultants play a major role in providing comprehensive information on all aspects of the career related to the training offered in the organization. Consultants sometimes integrate with a gift or study department to organize student practices and even rarely any potential relationship with appropriate employers (Biswalo, 1996).
6.0. An idea of guidance and advice in Tanzania
According to Sima's research (2004), professional counseling is still recognized as an independent profession in Tanzania and many African countries. Soon, HIV / AIDS in the country has established and established a foundation for counseling. This is mainly due to the diverse nature of the HIV / AIDS pandemic, which, unlike other human diseases, draws attention to the privilege of medicine. Thus, counseling looks at the pathway to prevent HIV infection by providing adequate and relevant information and for social and psychological support to people infected and pandemic. Ibid continued to say that a pandemic in the country has revealed that a number of NGOs have provided consulting services, but there is a lack of clarity on the nature and nature of consulting services provided by this organization. The nature and characteristics of the counseling service are also unstable.
In Tanzania, professional advice such as the aforementioned is a relatively new phenomenon. Outwater (1995) cited Sima (2004) pointing out that for the HIV / AIDS epidemic there was no formal counseling service in Tanzania hospitals, no professional counseling and no formal training counseling system. It was necessary to fill this gap by training as many counselors as possible to provide the best care for AIDS and their relatives (NACP, 1989, cited in ibid). Since then, many couple counselors have been trained in basic knowledge and skills in counseling. Currently, there are many counseling centers that work not only on HIV / AIDS related problems, but also on different issues affecting Tanzania. However, when counseling became popular during the onset of HIV / AIDS, many expected it to be targeted only to people infected and affected by HIV / AIDS, for fear of being labeled (Sima, 2002, cited in Sima 2004 ).
7.0. Problems and Challenges
The Tanzanian government has not yet formulated educational policies related to guidance and counseling despite the importance and necessity of schools. Biswalo (1996) pointed out that in Tanzania, guidelines and guidance are still lacking. He continued to say that efforts aimed at meeting guidance and counseling are obviously threatened by some difficulties, including funding to support the counseling work of several schools.
In Tanzania to this day, counseling is a relatively new phenomenon. School and other educational institutions are not adequately qualified. However, there are a limited number of qualified consultants, they are either not used well in schools or they participate in other activities rather than what they are trained in. Some school advisers are also teachers and they are fully engaged in teaching responsibilities. More surprising advice is considered a coercive way to prevent HIV infection by providing adequate and relevant information and for social and psychological support to people infected and affected by HIV / AIDS (Sima, 2004).
There is a slow growth in guidance and counseling in education systems that can be traced to the lack of funding, training facilities, and high turnover of greenhouse guidance assistance and appropriate consultants. For example, in many schools, they lack consulting offices, trained teacher counseling, and counseling facilities. In terms of funding, there are a number of options that can be explored to reduce financial constraints. Special schools on behalf of parents in need of access to non-governmental organizations.
The lack of a professional consulting firm in Tanzania to set standards for relevant practices is another challenge (Nwoye, 2008). Also, inadequate supply of vocational training programs in Tanzania universities and universities is another important task.
There is no effort to provide curriculum guidance in upper secondary and secondary schools and guidance and counseling at universities. The guidance files and receptive services can then be organized to address the five content areas, previously human relationships, career development, social values, self-development and learning ability. The instructive curriculum could be taught to students at different levels or in small groups to address issues similar to them. For guidance and counseling plans to be successful in Tanzania, trained professionals should have jobs to manage and provide school services. Such professionals should also have appropriate facilities and support structures. At the same time, universities and teaching institutions must establish and develop programs that train professional counselors and other counselors.
There is still insufficient support in higher education institutions to enable students to achieve their goals. However, students today show a greater need for career counseling than students in the past decade. Students can therefore experience an increased need to obtain relevant career information that enables them to seek better paid jobs. Many schools have previously appointed teachers as a career counselor without providing them with the necessary training and facilities for career guidance. Such counselors assume that all students finish at university and focus only on helping students complete university programs and no longer. It is high time for the government to set up and implement policies that will enhance guidance and counseling from primary and secondary schools, and then develop programs that train professional counselors and other counselors.
Leiðbeiningar og ráðgjöf keypt til að undirbúa nemendur í skólastarfi sínu til að komast inn í heim viðeigandi vinnu með því að tengja námskrá skólans við atvinnu. Til þess að skólinn geti náð árangri í þessu viðleitni, ætti að kenna einstaklingum í skemmtilega og þægilega umhverfi og ætti að vera viðeigandi og áhugavert fyrir nemendur. Annar þáttur sem þarf að huga að er að ráða lögbærum kennurum sem geta leiðbeint og ráðið nemendum í tengslum við það sem þeir kenna á vinnumarkaði. What is taught and how it is taught can have great influence on the interest and perception of learners. In Tanzania the spirit to plan and use guidance and counseling services in the effective development and utilization of their relative young human resources is evidently strong. However, as Biswalo (1996) said the efforts directed towards fulfilling this need are apparently thwarted by several difficulties. It appears total and enlightened commitment on the part of policy and decision makers is necessary and should be definitely surmount the problems.
The emergence of career development in western countries as a construct suggests that it may be an essential area in developing country like Tanzania where students need assistance; students particularly need assistance in selecting colleges and courses. To this end, the schools should offer a career guidance and counseling programme under the able leadership of qualified school counselors.